Ballet Dancing Feet
The anatomy of the feet of ballet dancers is specifically designed for their bones, joints and ligaments, muscles and tendons, vessels (arteries, veins, lymphatics), nerves, subcutaneous tissue, skin. This allows the feet to support with stability an average weight of 70 to 120kg.
Through the study of human anatomy, it is known that the lower limbs are formed by the thigh, leg and foot. And although the subject approach is a little dense, it is interesting to understand how the final segment of the body is subdivided into three regions. Beginning with the tarsus with seven bones, the metatarsus with five and the fingers with fourteen phalanges.
Thanks to the joints of the foot can perform various movements, such as flexion, extension, separation, approximation, lateral rotation, and medial rotation.
They also intervene in the lateral approach and rotation of the foot, as well as reinforce the sole of the foot.
But the foot itself has its own muscles.
They are short and are divided into two subgroups: dorsal and plantar.
The dorsal muscles (short extensor of the thick finger and short extensor of the fingers) are intimately related muscles, which come to be considered as one. They extend at the back of the foot, below the tendons of the long extensor muscle of the toes, from the anterior region of the leg and run from the calcaneus to the proximal phalanges of the toes, acting as their names indicate, as extensors of the toes.
The plantars are the majority of the muscles of the foot and are distributed in three subgroups: medial plantar (abductor, short flexor and thick toe adductor) lateral plantar (abductor and short flexor of the fifth toe) and middle plantar (short flexor of the toes, square plantar, lumbricales and plantar and dorsal bony interiors).
These muscles extend towards the toes, on which they act according to their names. Those in the medial subgroup move the first finger, those in the lateral subgroup move the fifth finger and those in the middle subgroup move the second to fifth fingers. They reinforce the plantar vault and innervate the branches of the sacral plexus (medial and lateral plantar nerves, branch of the tibial nerve).
The sole of the foot is a very resistant and compact leaf of fibrous tissue, which is divided into five parts for each of the toes. Its function is to elevate the arch of the foot when the toes are extended. The small muscles of the sole play a very important role in supporting the arch of the foot. Under the thick skin of the plant and the layers of fatty tissues beneath it, there are strong muscle strips that protect the vessels and nerves of the plant. The network of blood vessels and nerves in the foot transmits the impulse triggered by contraction and pain.